Vision 101

Astigmatism - is a common eye condition that's easily corrected by eyeglasses, contact lenses or surgery.

Astigmatism is characterized by an irregular curvature of the cornea. This type of disorder is also known as a refractive error. Astigmatism occurs in nearly everybody to some degree. For significant curvature, treatment is required.

A person's eye is naturally spherical in shape. Under normal circumstances, when light enters the eye, it refracts evenly, creating a clear view of the object. However, the eye of a person with astigmatism is shaped more like a football or the back of a spoon. For this person, when light enters the eye it is refracted more in one direction than the other, allowing only part of the object to be in focus at one time. Objects at any distance can appear blurry and wavy.


Cataract - is a clouding of the lens in the eye that affects vision. Most cataracts are related to aging. Cataracts are very common in older people. By age 80, more than half of all Americans either have a cataract or have had cataract surgery.

A cataract can occur in either or both eyes. It cannot spread from one eye to the other.


Nonprescription eyeglasses  -are primarily for people who can no longer read fine print. This condition, called presbyopia or "old vision," usually begins at about the age of 35 and progresses until about the age of 55. This inability to focus clearly at near distances is a universal human aging condition.

Although over-the-counter (OTC) glasses do not appear to harm vision, if they are not appropriate for a person's eyes, they can cause eyestrain after prolonged use.

stye -is a tender, painful red bump located at the base of an eyelash or under or inside the eyelid. The medical term for a sty is hordeolum (plural, hordeola).

A stye results from an acute infection of the oil glands of the eyelid (meibomian glands) that occurs after these glands have become clogged. A sty also may arise from an infected hair follicle at the base of an eyelash

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